Is it to be understood as affirmative or negative? This time the questioners are not specified but we may presume from the bystanders mentioned in verse 18 that they were either servants of the high priest’s household or officers of the temple police who had participated in Jesus’ arrest in the garden. John 18:24; John 18:26. Others have noted the possibility that John came from a priestly family, some of which is based upon a statement in Eusebius quoting Polycrates that John son of Zebedee was a priest.144 For further information on possible priestly connections among members of John’s family see the discussion in L. Morris.145 None of this can be proven beyond doubt, but on the whole it seems most probable that the disciple who accompanied Peter and gained entry into the courtyard for him was John son of Zebedee. Much more attention is devoted to the Roman trial before Pilate. Daube, D., “Three Notes having to do with Johanan ben Zaccai,” Journal of Theological Studies 11 (1960): 53-62. 151 A. N. Sherwin-White, Roman Society and Roman Law in the New Testament (Oxford: Clarendon, 1963), 1-47; also “The Trial of Christ” in Historicity and Chronology in the New Testament (London: SPCK, 1965), 97-116. Fortna, R. T., “Jesus and Peter at the High Priest’s House: A Test Case for the Question of the Relation Between Mark’s and John’s Gospels,” New Testament Studies 24 (1977/78): 371-83. Then. Because of his divinity, be knew all that would come upon him, but what a wondrous manhood his was that, although he knew all that would befall him, he went forth calm and composed, resigned to his Father’s will and said to those who had come to seize him, “Whom seek ye?” I think he is saying to some of us, “whom seek ye?” We have not come here to slay him; we have not come here to fight against him, and lead him away to crucify him; yet I hope that we can truly say that we have come seeking Jesus. Since Augustine a number of scholars have proposed that Annas and Caiaphas resided in different wings of the same palace, which were bound together by a common courtyard through which Jesus would have been led as he was taken from Annas to Caiaphas. John 18:1-2. One of the servants of the high priest being his kinsman whose ear Peter cut off, saith, Did not I see thee in the garden with him? There can be no harm in it, and it must work you some real good; so put up your sword, and lift the cup to your lips, and drink it to the dregs. 18:38a tiv ejstin ajlhvqeia… With his reply “What is truth?” Pilate dismissed the matter. To this end was I born, and for this cause came I unto the world, that I should bear witness unto the truth. Winter, P., On the Trial of Jesus, Studia Judaica 1 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1961). Some Jews may have refused to recognize the changes in high priests effected by the Roman authorities, since according to the Torah the high priesthood was a lifetime office (Num 25:25). It seems best to understand it as a qualified affirmative reply. John 18:40. No indication is given of Peter’s emotional state at this third denial (as in Matt 26:74 and Mark 14:71) or that he remembered that Jesus had foretold the denials (Matt 26:75, Mark 14:72 and Luke 22:61), or the bitter remorse Peter felt afterwards (Matt 26:75, Mark 14:72, and Luke 22:62). He saith, I am not. So there we see him standing, bound, before Caiaphas, the acting high priest for that year. Then Pilate entered into the judgment hall again, and called Jesus, and said unto him, Art thou the King of the Jews? "Spurgeon's Verse Expositions of the Bible". And Simon Peter stood and warmed himself. It is reasonable to assume that from the earliest times Christians who had heard the apostolic preaching were familiar with his name. Judas then, having received a hand of men and of officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons. Then said Jesus unto Peter, Put up thy sword into the sheath: the cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it? Pilate saith unto him, What is truth? One’s view of the exact role of the Jewish authorities will be influenced to some extent by one’s understanding of Jesus’ “trial” before Annas in John 18:13-24. Winter, P., “Marginal Notes on the Trial of Jesus, II,” Zeitschrift für die neutestamentliche Wissenschaft 50 (1959): 221-51. 18:38b ejgwV oujdemivan euJrivskw ejn aujtw'/ aijtivan Pilate now makes his first attempt to have Jesus released. Obviously he had private conversations; the Fourth Gospel records two significant ones (with Nicodemus and with the Samaritan woman at the well). John 18:17. 18:1 Tau'ta eijpwVn =Ihsou'" This appears to be a natural transition from the Last Discourse, the farewell speech of Jesus to his disciples in 13:31-17:26, including the final prayer in 17:1-26. What he knows of Jesus must have come from the Jewish authorities. The name is not given in Luke’s or John’s Gospel, but the garden must have been located somewhere on the lower slopes of the Mount of Olives. Anglican bishop Charles Ellicott surmises that Gethsemane might have been belonged to "a friend or disciple" of Jesus. John 18:4-5. Almost every detail which John records about the crucifixion of Jesus, for example, has some symbolic and theological meaning. Notice, dear friends, that the word “he” is in italics, showing that it is not in the original.
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